Abstract keväältä 2013Dysregulation of the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase and the ensuing generation of amyloid-β is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the identification of amyloid precursor protein binding proteins involved in regulating processing of amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase complex is essential for understanding the mechanisms underlying the molecular pathology of the disease. We identified calreticulin as novel amyloid precursor protein interaction partner that binds to the γ-secretase cleavage site within amyloid precursor protein and showed that this Ca2+- and N-glycan-independent interaction is mediated by amino acids 330–344 in the C-terminal C-domain of calreticulin.
Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that calreticulin is not only associated with amyloid precursor protein but also with the γ-secretase complex members presenilin and nicastrin. Calreticulin was detected at the cell surface by surface biotinylation of cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and was co-localized by immunostaining with amyloid precursor protein and presenilin at the cell surface of hippocampal neurons. The P-domain of calreticulin located between the N-terminal N-domain and the C-domain interacts with presenilin, the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex. The P- and C-domains also interact with nicastrin, another functionally important subunit of this complex.
Transfection of amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells with full-length calreticulin leads to a decrease in amyloid-β42 levels in culture supernatants, while transfection with the P-domain increases amyloid-β40 levels. Similarly, application of the recombinant P- or C-domains and of a synthetic calreticulin peptide comprising amino acid 330–344 to amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells result in elevated amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels, respectively. These findings indicate that the interaction of calreticulin with amyloid precursor protein and the γ-secretase complex regulates the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase complex, pointing to calreticulin as a potential target for therapy in Alzheimer's disease.
KALRETIKULIININ OSUUT TÄSsÄ PITÄÄ TEHDÄ KARTAKSI KUN EHTII. syksymmällä.